Mardin City General Information
Mardin is left with a number of disadvantages caused by the fact that he met the tourism sector late. It has been observed that the tourism potential of the city has not been brought to the forefront due to various reasons. Due to the fact that the university and the faculty of tourism were established recently, the cultural assets were started to be investigated recently, the problems caused by the security and transportation problems, the tourism institutions in Mardin appear as a sector that has been discussed late. Recently; UNESCO World Heritage Cities of Mardin is located in the candidate list in 2014 “t expected to be included in the main list, Turkey Tourism Strategy and Action Plan (2007-2013), showing Brand City, increases the expectations and hopes for the future of the tourism sector.
Area: 8,891 km²
Population: 705.098 (2000)
City Traffic No: 47
It is possible to list the different civilizations stratified together of Mardin briefly below;
CULTURES BEFORE HISTORY: The raw materials that summarize Mardin’s civilization are “stone and clay” and Mardin, which is exclusively in the numbers of artifacts and stone monuments from ancient times, holds the “HAIR SEAL” that is not in the hands of any other civilization. Nowadays, clay has become the most important determinant factor of learning in other words of the world, especially in the regions that are under the influence of Mesopotamia.
Although Mardin goes through different historical processes with many different languages, religions and cultural mosaics, it exhibits great unity and unity that can be seen especially in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
Throughout the history of civilization, each era gave birth to a new and different age. Mardin, which is an important city of Northern Mesopotamia and has been accepted as a settlement since the Customer Period (50.000 BC), later formed an important place in the permanent settlements in the periods when the grain production economy started. It is still possible to follow the 3,000-year transition periods in order in the Neolotic settlement of Jermo, on the mountainous borders of Mesopotamia.
The earliest pottery, domesticated animals and cultivated soils are the beginning of the permanent settlement here BC. It is an indication that it can be dated around 6750. This process is the period when the site states from the Tigris to the Mediterranean dominated. During the process known as Tell Halaf, copper on a site on the Habur River BC. It started to be processed in 4.500. Certain grains and pets are seen here, and their technical developments include wheeled vehicles, stone paved roads, mastery of the vault principle and high-grade furnaces.
The oldest settlers of Mesopotamia and especially Mardin, other than written monuments, written tradition, Sumerians, before the Akads or Akads, BC. Towards the end of the third millennium are Subarus, who were seen in Northern Mesopotamia and were the ancestors or close relatives of the Huris. Although their presence in Mardin is known, there are no definitive statements about their history and migration routes. Until now, it is highly likely that the effects are greater than those stated.
B.C. With the transformations in the 4th and 3rd millenniums, pre-historic endless dark periods have ended and progress has begun with the availability of writing. Names, speeches and movements; It is put forward with a system consisting of shapes representing words and syllables as a whole.
B.C. At around 3000, the Sumerians started using stones in the buildings, including the cylindrical seal and the emergence of writing, probably in the center in Erech. By the way, almost all the documents written before the Akad (2334-2154 BC) Dynasty were written in the Sumerian language. The Sumerian language is a contiguous language, and the prefixes and suffixes that express different grammar rules and associations are added to the noun or verb root in a sequence.
Depending on this, BC. In the 4th millennium, Mardin consists of many different elements, as can be seen later. The Sumerians and their successors, despite the Sumerian’s roles in management, the historical roles of other elements have never been lower than others. In the next half millennium, the development of the Sumerian city-states was observed in Mesopotamia. Sumerians also revealed the vast majority of the Mesopotamian cultural framework in the next two millenniums.
ACADS (2350-2000 BC): It is observed that the Akads and other Semitic elements that are unknown by pre-Akad lead a more or less nomadic life than predictions. However, since they had herds of domestic sheep and goats, they were not staying in a place that would take more than a day’s walk from the watery areas.
There are many reasons to consider 2350 as a historical turning point in the history of Mesopotamia and especially in Mardin.
First, an empire rose for the first time on Mesopotamian lands. The Akadites are the driving force of this empire. This element, standing side by side with the Sumerians, became almost synonymous with them. The most important rulers of the Akads are Sargon, Rimuş, Maniştusu, Naram-sin and Şar-kali-şarri, and these rulers ruled for 142 years.
BABIL PERIOD: The renaissance of the Sumerians reached the peak in the united kingdom of Hamburabi in the second millennium. In this period, Mesopotamia was a mosaic of small states. Hamburabi talented on the element of coalition, becoming stronger than his predecessors. In the period of Samsuiliuna (1749-1712 BC), the son of Hamburabi, the Babylonian Empire largely entered a period of collapse. Despite the relaxation of political unity, the Babylonian Period was a period when active intellectuality was a premium and increased.
HURIS: Huriler orbits of the ancient Near East Civilization. They entered towards the end of the third millennium. They reached their high point only towards the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. In the 15th century, Alakh was heavily Hurried, and in the Mitanni Emperor, the Huris formed a leading element with their strongest population structures.
THE MITANIAN AND HURI KING: After 1600, after the weakening of the Semitic states in Mesopotamia, the Huris formed more radical settlements in this region and created countless small states in the east of Asia Minor (Anatolia), Mesopotamia and Syria. Shortly thereafter, the Kingdom of Mitanni began to form next to the sources of the Habur River in Mesopotamia as of 1500. The Mittani Kingdom of the Hittites and Assyrians, weakened by internal complexities, has undoubtedly turned into a major political disaster. However, the last period of Babylon accelerated the collapse of city culture.
Mesopotamia (Especially Nisibis) BC. It was under the great influence of the Armenians in the 1st century, but Phraates III (reigned in 70-58 / 57 BC) took it back to the Parties. With the rise of Roman power in the Near East, it formed a border between Rome and the Parties in Mardin. It was under the control of Nusaybin Part.
ROMAN EMPIRE: Roman leader Crassus BC. He came to Mesopotamia in 54 BC, but by the Parties BC. In 53, Harran (Carrhae) was defeated. A.D. Emperor Trajan M.S. in 114-117. With the two campaigns he made in 115 and 116, he conquered the region by breaking the power of the Parties and made them the city of Rome. But after Trajan’s death, Hadrian put them under the reign of the Parties again. From 165 onwards, the Romans conquered the northwestern part of Mesopotamia, including Mardin. The influence and sovereignty of the Roman Empire, Byzantine A.D. It continued until the formation of New Rome in 330.
From the 3rd century to the rise of Islam in the early 7th century, Mesopotamia has turned into a battlefield between the Romans and the Sassanids (the Byzantines in the 6th and 7th centuries) Parties. As in the Parties Period, the influence of the Romans was concentrated in Harran, Edessa (Urfa), Nisibis (Nusaybin), Saures (Savur), Dara and Mardin regions, which are close to Anatolia in the northwest of the country. During this time, Nusaybin became the main center of Nasturi Christians for some time.
BYZANTINE EMPIRE: In 330, after taking into account Troy, Antakya and Alexandria, Constantine (Istanbul) became the capital of the Roman Empire. Thus Byzantine became the new Rome. Byzantines ruled in Mardin until 641. In the 7th century, Mardin was conquered by the Arabs.
ARAB CONQUEST: After the process of Arab conquest in Gregorian 641, Mardin continued to be an important city of Mesopotamia. In addition, famous Arab tribes such as Beni Tağlip, Bekir and Tamim played very important roles in the history of Mardin. The city of Mardin was linked to the Caliphate in Mecca. When the Umayyad caliph moved to Damaskus (Damascus), Mardin became a city ruled by general governors. Towards 750 Gregorians replaced the Umayyad Caliphate in all regions except the Umayyads in Spain, in Kufa, Mesopotamia. As a result of the wars, during the last period of the Umayyads during the Abu Abbas al Saffah period, the Abbasids had their forces accepted. The Abbasid Caliphate reigned for five centuries when Persian culture played an important role in the political and cultural activity of Mesopotamia.
HAMDANES: Hamdaniler, which appeared in 895 AD and became famous in Mardin, established an independent emirate in Mosul in the 10th century. The Abbasid caliph himself made direct requests from Hamdan from time to time. The reign of the Hamdanians in Mardin M.S. It continued until 978. In the superiority of the bureaucrats, the strength of the Hamdanis has decreased. The Abbasid caliph released them for their own political and religious purposes. Until the control of the region was in the hands of the Ukayians. North of Al Jazeera (North Mesopotamia) was in the hands of the Kurdish Ibn Marwan.
SELÇUKLU: When the power of the bureaucers weakened and the Seljuks’ Marines (Ibn Marwan) defeated Nusaybin in 1089, the management of the Mardin Region took over.
RICHES: In 1127, Sultan Mahmut appointed Zengi as Mosul responsible. After taking control of the city thoroughly, Miladi went on an expedition in 1130, defeating the Artukids and took Nusaybin, Sincar and Harran.
Artukids: Artukids, in eastern Turkey have long-term provisions. They ruled the Mardin region independently and under the reign of Eyyübi, Memlük, İlhanlı and Karakoyunlu from the 11th century to the beginning of the 15th century. The first Artuklu, Döger Türkmen tribe tribe came to Anatolia in 1073 after the Seljuk victory of Manzikert and started to serve under the command of Seljuk Melikshah. Artuklular later settled in Mardin and established a small kingdom (melik) in Mardin.
The influence of Saladin-i Eyyubi in the region has weakened the power of the Artukids. After 1234, only the Mardin branch remained in their hands.
By accepting the rulers of the Mongols, er saved the Mardin dynasty. Artuklular served loyally to the İlhanlıs. The Artukids were a military force, showing great respect for the Arab culture, and great tolerance to those of Muslims and other religions. Sultan Salih, after Karakoyunlu took Mardin, replaced Mardin with Mosul and thus the Artuklu reign here ended.
MOĞOLOLULAR (İLHANLILAR): Mongolians are composed of nomadic East Asian tribes. Hülagü, the grandson of Genghis Khan, created the Persian İlhanlı dynasty. Persian Ilkhanids were attached to the great Inn of the east. Abu Said was the first Ilkhanid ruler to take the name Arab, after his death in 1335 became the turning point of the breakup of the Persian Ilkhanian Empire. İlhanlılar reigned in Mardin during the Artukids Period. Their reign in Mardin ended with Abu Said’s death in 1335.
TIMURLENK: At the beginning of the 15th century, Timur; He went to Anatolia to occupy Mardin and other cities. The city of Mardin was burned and destroyed by the invasion of Timur.
KARAKOYUNLU PERIOD: Kara Yusuf, the ruler of Karakoyunlu State, reconstructed his country after 1406 and conquered Mardin, Erzincan, Baghdad, Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Kazvin and Sultaniye. After his death, the country was dragged into a great chaos.
Born in Mardin, Cihanşah made efforts to reunite in the country, but came under the hegemony of the Akkoyunlu State.
AKKOYUNLU PERIOD (1350-1502): emerged as a union under the leadership of Tur Ali Bey. The real founder of the Akkoyunlu State is Kara Yülük Osman Bey. The period when the Akkoyunlu State was the strongest was the period of power of Uzun Hasan. Meanwhile, the defeat of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet I in Otlukbeli war in 1473 was a very heavy loss for Uzun Hasan. After this defeat, it accelerated the inclusion of the Akkoyunlu State into the process of collapse. This development paved the way for the formation of Safavi State under Shah Ismail’s rule. During the Akkoyunlular Period, Mardin experienced very important cultural developments.
THE SAFAVIES PERIOD: In 1508, Shah Ismail took over Mardin and took control of the city. With the rise of the Safavids, the Ottomans had taken advantage in Anatolia. Mardin witnessed the war of both states. As a result of the siege of the castle, which lasted for a year by the Ottomans, Yavuz Sultan Selim conquered Mardin in 1516 and added it to the Ottoman lands.
OTTOMAN PERIOD: Mardin Yavuz was included in the Ottoman lands in 1516 during the period of Sultan Selim. Although the Ottoman State peaked in the 16th century, it later started to decline due to the fact that the Administration, which ruled the Ottoman State well in the past, was not modernized later, internal and external reasons, and the necessary reforms required to save the state. The external reasons that accelerated the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the change of trade routes, the inability to realize the industrial revolution, delays in applying modern military techniques brought with it a collapse. Another important reason for the deterioration of the integration in the Ottoman State was the separatist and nationalist movements that emerged after the French Revolution.
During the First World War, with the Sykes-Picot Agreement (16 May 1916), it was aimed to share the Southeastern Anatolia Region between the British and French Forces, including Mardin, as a result of the Ottoman Empire’s desire to break up. With the efforts of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Mardin was strongly against the occupation before the Grand National Assembly Government (23 April 1920) and the Republic’s declaration in 1923.
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY: Misak-i Milli, complete independence of the general objectives published. After collecting the Turkey Grand National Assembly of Turkey’s Parliament in Ankara to participate in each province announced the selection decision with extraordinary powers to elected five deputies. In addition to the newly elected members, members of the Istanbul Assembly were also invited to join the newly created Assembly in Ankara. Upon this, Derviş Vural, who was elected from Mardin in 1919 as a member of the Istanbul Assembly, joined the newly formed assembly in Ankara. After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, Mardin, this country was an important city.
In a period where stability in the world is losing power day by day, Mardin is starting to return to those old glory days, which hold an important place in the history of the world. At the same time, Mardin is making sure and fast steps towards its goal in order to make the past trade route, which stretches from the Mediterranean to Iran and from the north-south axis of Anatolia down to Mesopotamia, to become an important crossroads again.
Mardin is one of the poetic cities of the Southeast, which gives the impression that time stops with its architectural, ethnographic, archaeological, historical and visual values. In Mardin, in parallel with different religious beliefs, mosques, shrines, churches, monasteries and similar.
Districts of the province of Mardin; Dargeçit, Derik, Kızıltepe, Mazıdağı, Midyat, Nusaybin, Ömerli, Savur and Yeşilli.
Kızıltepe: Kızıltepe is located in the southwest of Mardin. Reflecting the artuklu magnificence, the Great Mosque, Taşköprü, Taipeut Tower Şahkullubey Cupola and Harzem Ruins are the historical treasures that have survived to the present day.
Mazıdağı: It is believed to have been inhabited since the Sumerians. Dermetinan Castle, Sultan Şeyhmus and Pir Hattap Mausoleums located on a 50-meter hill are important places to visit. The two caves of Zambırhan and Asrihan are from the Stone Age.
Midyat: This very important district of Mardin is famous for its silver workmanship. The district, which is an important region in terms of handicrafts, is very attractive in terms of tourism. 18 km from the district. Deyrulumur Monastery located to the east was built in 397 AD.
Nusaybin: Gynnavas Mound, which will shed light on the world, will open a new page in the history of Civilizations. Morin City Ruin, Morin Castle, Dimitros Castle, Mor Ambaham Monastery, Yeni Castle, Shirvan Castle, Mor Yakup Church and Mor Yakup Tomb at the ground floor 5-6 meters deep, Mor Evgin Monastery, Mor John Church, Grape water canal, Selman -i Pak, Şeyh Ali Hill, Pir Kemal Mausoleum, Arab Barracks, Baghdad Bridge, Tak-ı Victory are important historical places. Zeynel Abidin Mosque, Hz. It is the most important mosque in the district where the mausoleums of Zeynel Abidin and his sister Zeynep, one of the 13th grandchildren of Muhammed, are located.
Ömerli: Ancient values left by the domination of Assyrians, Persians, Romans, Byzantines and Turkish Islamic States make Ömerli a rich cultural center. Fafah Castle, Beşikkaya Ruins, Göllü Ruins and the Church Ruins in the center are worth seeing.
Yeşilli: Yeşilli, located to the northeast of the center of Mardin, has become famous for its promenade places in a lush valley formed by nature generously. Water channels, fountains, dams and mills built during the Roman period are worth seeing.